Zika Virus, pregnant women are the most at risks that on any trimester. The incidence of Zika virus in pregnant women remains unknown, and data on pregnant women infect with Zika Virus are still limit. No evidence exists to prove that pregnant women are more susceptible to Zika virus or experience more severe disease during pregnancy.
Zika Virus: Pregnancy!
The World Health Organization (WHO) has develop interim guidelines for healthcare providers caring for pregnant women during a Zika outbreak. Pregnant women should consider traveling to an area with Zika virus transmission. Screening, testing, and management are also necessary after the trip.
Pregnant women should tell healthcare providers about recent travel. Those who develop two or more symptoms of Zika virus disease (fever, headache, arthralgia, conjunctivitis, maculopapular rash) during or within two weeks of travel, or who have ultrasound findings of congenital microcephaly or any neurological abnormalities, should be test for Zika virus. Testing is not ecommendd for women without a travel history to a region with Zika virus outbreak.
Consequently for pregnant women with evidence of Zika virus infection, an ultrasound examination should be conduct to monitor fetal growth. Referral to a maternal-fetal medicine or a disease specialist with expertise in pregnancy management is advisable. At this juncture, there is no specific treatment for Zika virus; supportive care is suggestive.
Zika Virus: Is mosquito-borne!
Zika Virus is a mosquito-borne virus transmitted mostly by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. These vectors also spread dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and West Nile fever. They are found throughout the world, including Africa, Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Caribbean, the Pacific Islands, and the Americas. 80% of patients infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic. Symptomatic disease is often mild and characterized by acute onset of fever, headache, maculopapular rash, arthralgia (joint pain), or conjunctivitis (red eyes). Symptoms usually last from a few days to a week. Severe disease demanding hospitalization is uncommon; fatalities are rare. Guillain-Barré syndrome has been confirmed in patients following Zika virus infection.
Fetal transmission of Zika Virus
Fetal transmission of Zika virus has been report throughout pregnancy. Although Zika virus RNA has been found in the pathologic specimens of fetal losses, it is unknown if Zika virus cause the fetal losses. Zika virus is also believe to be responsible for microcephaly in infants, and in the current outbreak in Brazil, a significant increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly has been documented. However, it remains unknown how many of the microcephaly cases are related to Zika virus infection. Studies are ongoing to investigate the relationship between microcephaly and Zika virus infection, including the role of other contributory factors (e.g., prior infection with other organisms, viruses, nutrition, environment, and untreated infections). Because the full spectrum of Zika virus outcomes during pregnancy is still not known and requires further investigation.
Zika Virus: Vector Surveillance and Control Recommendations
As result before the mosquito season, governments should conduct public education campaigns focusing on reducing or eradicating larval habitats for the Aedes vectors. Surveys are important to determine abundance, distribution, and kind of containers; vast numbers of containers may trigger high mosquito abundance and high risk. Besides, heal officials should initiate a community reduction campaign that is aim at motivating the community to remove and eliminate any water holding containers. Cover, clean, empty or treat large containers with long-lasting larvicide. First of all have vegetation trim and tall grass cut to reduce adult mosquito resting sites. Mosquito education materials and personal protection measures should also be develop.
Most of all important during the mosquito season!
Most of all during the mosquito season, governments continue to organize public education campaigns and distribute mosquito education materials. The goal of Aedes community-wide surveys is to determine their distribution, presence, absence; develop detail vector distribution maps; estimate relative abundance; and evaluate the efficiency of source reduction and larvicide treatment. Community source reduction efforts should be maintain. Residents should concentrate control efforts on places with high mosquito density. Initiate adult sampling to confirm areas of high adult mosquito abundance. Promote preventive control to decrease areas of high mosquito abundance.
If an infected person is viremic, he should prevent or minimize contact with vectors, especially during the first week of illness since he can infect mosquitoes and thereby potentially triggering or contributing to a local outbreak. For that reason healthcare providers should educate the public to dispose of water containers to eradicate larval habitats. Finally if funding allows, they can host a community volunteer program to help promote removal of larval habitats within 100-200 meters around a home. As result educate the public about the danger of disease and urge them to use insect repellents, air conditioning, and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside the house.
Zika Virus: Adult Mosquito Control
- Provide spatial insecticide treatments to reduce vector abundance.
- Divide the outbreak area into operational areas where control measures can be effective within a few days; repeat as necessary to reduce mosquito density.
- Initiate adult sampling to estimate mosquito abundance and evaluate the efficacy of insecticide treatments.
- Conduct mosquito control and inspections in an area-wide fashion.
- Treat storm drains, roof gutters, and other overlooked cryptic water sources.
- Treat, modify, or dispose of mosquito-producing containers or any large junk objects that can accumulate even a small amount of water (buckets, bottles, water vessels, old tires, pet dishes, and flower pots) in buildings, public areas, etc.
Zika Virus: Control of Immature Stages
An important step in Aedes control operations is to identify the types and abundance of mosquito breeding sites and their productivity. Each container requires distinct control measures depending on the nature of the container and its use. There are five types of containers producing Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus:
- Phytotelmata (leaf axils, tree holes, etc.)
- Cavities in structures (bricks, fence poles, uneven floors, roof gutters, air-conditioner trays)
- Useful containers (animal drinking pans, pails, paint trays, potted plants, septic tanks, toys, water storage vessels)
- Disposable containers (food and drink containers, used tires, broken appliances)
- Outdoor underground structures (public wells, septic tanks, storms drains, water meters)
Zika Virus: Conclusion
Most people affected with Zika virus do not feel sick. After a mosquito bites an infected patient, it will contract the virus in that person’s blood and spread the virus by biting another person. Even though they do not feel sick, travelers returning from an area with Zika infection should take steps to prevent mosquito bites for three weeks so that they do not spread the virus to uninfected mosquitoes.
Send this post to your friends: