Virus Guillain Barreis the leading cause of Guillain Barré syndrome (GBS), a disorder wherein the body’s immune system destroys part of the peripheral nervous system. The most common symptoms of this disorder include different degrees of weakness or tingling sensations in the legs. In most instances, the symmetrical weakness and unusual sensations spread to the arms and upper body. Such symptoms can increase regarding intensity until certain muscles cannot be used and in the end, the patient is almost entirely paralyzed. In these cases, the disorder is fatal and is considered a medical emergency.
1. Virus Guillain Barre: Causes
No one knows why Guillain-Barré strikes some people and not others though it is not contagious. What sets the disease in motion is still a question. The only thing we know is that the body’s immune system attacks the body itself, causing an autoimmune disease. Guillain-Barré syndrome may afflict anybody at any age, and both sexes are equally inclined toward the disorder. However, the syndrome is rare and affects only about one person in 100,000. Guillain-Barré often occurs several days or weeks after the patient has revealed symptoms of a respiratory or gastrointestinal viral infection. Surgery will at times trigger the syndrome. In rare cases, vaccinations might increase the risk of GBS.
What with Patients with GBS!
Patients with GBS are often put on a ventilator to assist with breathing and are watched closely for problems such as an unusual heartbeat, blood clots, infections, and high or low blood pressure. Most people have a good recovery from even the most severe cases of GBS while some continue to suffer a certain degree of weakness. The symptoms can progress over the periods of hours, days, or weeks. Most patients reach the stage of greatest weakness within the first two weeks after symptoms emerge, and 90 percent of them are at their weakest by the third week of the illness.
What When Guillain Barre is trigger!
When Guillain Barre is trigger by a viral or bacterial infection, it is likely that the virus has altered the nature of cells in the nervous system, so the immune system considers them as foreign cells. The virus also makes the immune system itself less discerning about what cells it recognizes as its own, letting some of the immune cells, e.g. certain kinds of lymphocytes and macrophages, attack the myelin. Scientists are investigating other possibilities to find out why the immune system goes amiss in GBS and other autoimmune diseases. GBS’ cause and course are an active area of neurological investigation, requiring the cooperative efforts of immunologists, neurological scientists, and virologists.
2. Virus Guillain Barre: Diagnosis
Guillain-Barré is a syndrome rather than a disease since a specific disease-causing agent is un-involved. A syndrome is a medical condition manifested by a collection of signs (what a doctor can observe or measure) and symptoms (what the patient feels). The signs and symptoms of the syndrome might be pretty varied so that physicians, on rare occasions, may find it difficult to detect Guillain Barre in its earliest stages.
Some disorders share the same symptoms with Guillain Barre, and thus, doctors need to question and examine patients carefully before conducting a diagnosis. In general, the signs and symptoms create a particular pattern that can help doctors to distinguish Guillain-Barré from other disorders. For instance, physicians will check whether the symptoms emerge on both sides of the body (most popular in Guillain Barre) as well as the quickness along which the symptoms arise (in other disorders, muscle weakness often progresses over months rather than days or weeks).
3. Virus Guillain Barre: Treatment
No cure is available for Guillain Barre syndrome. Nevertheless, there are therapies that lower the severity of the illness and promote the recovery in patients. There are also a handful of ways to deal with the complications of the disease. At this juncture, plasma exchange (plasmapheresis) and high-dose immunoglobulin therapy are being use. Both methods are efficient, but immunoglobulin is easier to manage.
In plasma exchange, the whole blood is remove out of the body. Further process so the red and white blood cells will be separate from the plasma. The blood cells are afterward sent back to the patient without the plasma. The plasma which the body can quickly reproduce. Scientists yet do not know exactly why plasma exchange is effective. The technique seems to lessen the severity and duration of GBS. It is possible that plasmapheresis can remove antibodies and other immune cell-derive factors that may contribute to nerve damage.
Experiments have showed!
Experiments have showed that giving high doses of immunoglobulins to Guillain-Barré patients can reduce the immune attack on the nervous system. Though several hypotheses have been proposed, physicians still do not know why or how this treatment works. Besides, the use of steroid hormones has been apply as a way to lessen the severity of GBS. And clinical trials have proved that this method not only is ineffective but also may even have a deleterious influence on the disease.
Most important part of the treatment!
Important part of the treatment for this syndrome includes keeping the patient’s body working during recovery of the nervous system. Sometimes this may require placing the patient on a heart monitor, mechanical ventilator assistance, or other machines that support body function. The need for such sophisticated devices is one reason GBS patients are usually treated in hospitals. That especially in an intensive care ward when in hospitals, doctors can also observe and address many problems. That may distress any paralyze patient – complications such as bed sores or pneumonia.
Some help to recover!
Quite often, even before recovery begins, caregivers will manually move the patient’s limbs to keep the muscles strong and flexible. That to prevent venous sludging in the limbs that could lead to deep vein thrombosis. Physical therapy will later begin as soon as the patient starts to recover limb control. Well-planned clinical trials of new, experimental therapies are the key to enhancing the treatment of patients with virus Guillain- Barré.
Not only physical difficulties but also emotionally painful periods do Guillain-Barré syndrome patients have to face. It is tough for them to adapt to sudden paralysis and dependence on others with everyday routine activities. They sometimes need psychological counseling to adjust to the new circumstance.
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